Electronic & Mechanical workshop
Characterization and measurements
RF and microwave measurements
Optical microscopy (UV, Vis, IR)
Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy
Optical Spectroscopy (UV, Vis, IR)
Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
Unique in the region, it has been established to support the development of new sensors for agricultural, environmental and food security sectors, such as semiconducting, microwave, chemical, optical, or magnetic sensors. To support this multidisciplinary approach, a unique scientific infrastructure has been established, comprising of clean room facilities (ISO_5…), state-of-the-art fabrication equipment and new generation measurement instruments. Numerous opportunities are offered by the BioSense Nano and Microelectronics Laboratory, including fabrication, characterization and measurement.
Research and development of sensors and sensing devices currently not available on the market is based on multidisciplinary fabrication approach. Namely, solutions are sought by combining various nano- and microelectronic fabrication technologies, realized on a wide range of flexible, rigid or robust substrates with a variety of functional layers. The following facilities are available in-house at the BioSense Laboratory:
1. Clean room 1 – photolithography, nano and MEMS, class ISO 5 / ISO 7 (ISO 146441), DI water Grade 1 (ISO 3696), nitrogen, argon and air class ISO 5, vacuum;
2. Clean room 2 – thin and thick films Class ISO 5 / ISO 7, DI water Grade 3 (technical water), nitrogen and air class ISO 5, vacuum;
3. Clean room 3 – nano and micro manufacturing, characterization & measurement, optical laboratory, class ISO 8, nitrogen and air class ISO 5, vacuum;
4. Chemical laboratory – general chemistry, nanomembranes, nano-structured films, DI water Grade 2, nitrogen and air, vacuum;
5. Mechanical and electronic workshop.
Photolithography process down to 1 µm
Essential to any part of microfabrication process, photolithography process is used to pattern thin films that can be used to realize sensing elements with enhanced sensing effect.
Complete photolithography line for thin films, with resolution 1 – 100 µm. The equipment is located in clean room class ISO 5 / ISO 7 and it comprises the following:
Wet bench Class One (USA), Mask aligner Karl Suss MJB4 (Germany), Spin coater – Laurell WS-650Mz (USA), Mask writer Rofin-Sinar Power Line D-100 (Germany), UV exposure unit Technigraf Variocop S (Germany);
Memmert oven UN30 2pcs. (Germany), Ultrasonic cleaner Telsonic Tec – 25 (Swiss), Magnetic stirrer Yellow line MSH (Germany), Refrigerator Elin (Germany), glassware, tools;
A number of sensors for liquid and gaseous chemicals are based on thin film technology. Owing to this technology one is able to fabricate optical filters and observe plant’s health in certain parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Thin films are also used to enhance sensor durability in the field since it enables the realization of hard layers and protection coatings against corrosion/oxidation.
Deposition of thin films with thickness range of nm-µm, on commercially available substrates or on pre-deposited layers. Thin layer deposition includes thermal deposition, e-gun and sputtering in vacuum or reactive atmosphere. Also, thin films with atomic precision of thickness can be realized using automatized layer-by-layer deposition and spin-coating. The equipment, located in clean room class ISO 5 / ISO 7, includes:
Thermal evaporation, e-gun, sputtering system Leybold Heraeus L560Q (Germany), Potentiostat/Galvanostat PAR Model 273A (USA), Spin-coater TORCH (China), Plasma generator Comdel CX 600 (USA), Laser system Rofin-Sinar Power Line D – 100 (Germany);
Robotic arm Arrex RA1-Pro for layer-by-layer deposition, Memmert oven UN30 (Germany), Ultrasonic bath Bandelin Sonorex (Germany);
Thick film technology has two major application areas: supporting structures (housing, hybrid circuits, integrated sensors and multisensors) and thick film layers as primary transducing elements in gas, chemical, humidity, thermal flow, pressure, and temperature sensors.
Thick film technology involves the deposition of a number of layers of conductor, resistors, and dielectric materials onto rigid or flexible substrates (ceramic, glass, polyimide film, paper, etc.) using screen/stencil printing, inkjet printing or spin coating techniques. Thick films can be deposited more efficiently by electrochemical techniques of electroplating and selective oxidation of metals. In addition, all listed thick film methods can be combined on the same substrate. Laser trimming process is used for structuring of thick films. The equipment is located in clean room class ISO 5 / ISO 7 / ISO 8, and it includes the following:
Screen and stencil printer EKRA M2H (Germany), Ink-jet printer Fuji Dimatix DMP-3000 (USA), Potentiostat/Galvanostat EGG 730A (USA), Spin-coater TORCH (China);
Memmert oven UN20 (Germany), Ultrasonic bath Bandelin Sonorex (Germany);
LTCC (Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics) technology simultaneously fulfills the requirements for miniature size, low cost, and high resistance to harsh environment, needed in outdoor sensing and communication applications. In addition, LTCC supports fabrication of complex, three-dimensional structures with integrated electronic components, and micromechanical and microfluidics elements into a lab-on-chip and advanced sensor. LTCC equipment is located in clean room class ISO7/ISO8 and comprises the following:
Screen printer and doctor blade EKRA M2H (Germany), Box furnace Nabertherm L9/11/ SKM (Germany), Uniaxial press Carver 3895CEB (USA), Laser cutter Rofin-Sinar Power Line D – 100 (Germany);
Dryer Memmert UN30 (Germany), UV exposure unit Technigraf Variocop S;
Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) can realize a large number of microsensors for almost every possible sensing modality (pressure, temperature, chemical species, magnetic fields, radiation etc.). Furthermore, MEMS can perform actuation and therefore allow simultaneous sensing and control of the environment. Owing to the in-house facilities MEMS can be fabricated using thin/thick film deposition, photolithography, electroplating, laser machining, and inkjet printing.
Artificial structures composed of sub-wavelength elements that exhibit acoustic phenomena generally not found in nature, allow us to tailor effective mass density and effective compressibility of acoustic structures. With the help of acoustic materials nonreciprocal acoustic devices (acoustic circulators and diodes) or acoustic cloaking devices have become possible.
One of exclusive technologies available in the Laboratory are nanomembranes – ultrathin structures with thickness of several atomic layers) and with large area of few cm2. Since they can be made surprisingly robust or designed to offer “smart” functionalities, similar to selective cell membranes, nanomembranes exhibit a practically unlimited potential for applications in sensor design, energy conversion, etc.
For synthesis and analysis of various materials used in available fabrication technologies for sensor design.
Equipment: Ultrasonic homogenizer Bandelin ND-70 (Germany), Ultrathermostat bath Haake B7 (Germany), Magnetic stirrer IKARTC (Germany), Robotic Arm Arrex Pro (China), glass and plastic ware;
Optical sensors have wide application in environmental sensing – they can sense the quality of water, photosynthetically active radiation, plant’s health and many more environmental parameters can be monitored by optical sensors. Optical laboratory enables spectroscopy and optical inspection in UV, VIS and IR spectra, as well as surface analysis with resolution of 10 nm. Optical laboratory also facilitates a dark room equipped with an optical table and accessories for setting up variety of optical experiments. The following equipment is included in the optical laboratory:
Equipment: Optical tables Newport with accessories, FTIR/FT-NIR spectrometer Interspec 301-X, DSH-L6/L6S Series UV-Vis Spectrophotometer, Microscopes Baush & Lomb, Optical profilometer Huvitz HRM-300, Hyperspectral camera 400 – 1000 nm SPECIM SP-HS-CL-30-V10E-Std, Hyperspectral camera 900 – 1700 nm SPECIM SPNIR-VLNIR-CL-100-N17E, Hyperspectral camera 600 – 975 nm Ximea MQ022HG-IM-SM5X5-NIR;
Electronic & Mechanical workshop
Electronic workshop serves as a unit for assembling sensor prototypes, microwave circuits and supporting electronics.. Designed devices can be integrated into supporting electronics by means of soldering and wire bonding. Mechanical workshop is mainly used for manufacturing of a special experimental apparatus. Its capacities are well suited to fabricate microwave waveguides, acoustic devices, housing for sensors and a variety of aids for available technologies in BioSense laboratory. In this manner, developed devices are prepared for the measurement and characterization. The workshop facilitates the following eqipment:
Machining center Bernardo Proficenter 700 BQV (Germany), 4 – axe CNC mill Syil X5+ (China), Wire bonder (K&S 4124), 3D printer Felix 3.0;
Small machines and tools.
Characterization and measurements
Designed to serve all other technologies. The following equipment is primarily used for characterization and measurement:
Electron microscope with EDX and surface analysis Hitachi TM3030 (Japan), Nano Indenter Agilent G200 (USA), Hall Measurement System Ecopia HMS-3000 (USA), Vector Network Analyzer Agilent E5071C (USA), Semiconductor parameter analyser HP 4145A (USA), System multimeter HP 3457A (USA), Digital oscilloscope HP545120B (USA), Probe station Ultracision 680E (USA), Lock – In amplifier EGG SR530 (USA), Thin film measurement Inficon XTC (USA), Surface analyzer Huvitz HRM-300 (Korea), Surface profile measurement TIME TR-200 (China), Optical table Newport 60 x 60 + Optical table Newport 90 x 60 cm with accessories (USA), UV- Vis monohromator Yobin Ivon H20 (France), UV – Vis spectrometer UV-6300PC (China), FTIR spectrometer Interspec 301X (Estonia), Mass spectrometer MKS – PPT-1A-200FC (USA), UV fluorescence microscope B&L Balplan (USA), IC microscope B&L Balplan (USA), XRF ANALYSER Olympus DP-DP-2000-CX-E-EN-ENAP, Thermovision system FLIR i7 (USA);
Microscope Müler Researcher (Germany), Oscilloscopes Tektronix 7623A, Tektronix THS720A, UNI-T (USA), Thickness measurement Mutotoyo – Absolute (Japan), power sources 10 V – 10 kV, analog and digital instruments (moisture&humidity, temperature, pressure, particle counter, UV dose, lux-meter, sound level, pH-meter, conductometer, etc.);